Types of organisations
Typical linear organisation, with CEO at the top, then middle management, then the workers. Simple hierarchy, clear lines of reporting.
Workers are grouped by department/boss. Resources across the “matrix” are flexible, but the reporting structure is less clear.
I like to think that you can “drag and drop” resources from one matrix grid to another.
Teams are formed to address resourcing for specific projects. Strong project focus, but little flexibility in resourcing.
A flat governance structure, where individuals take on more responsibility. Quite flexibile.
When work needs to be outsourced to a vendor, a process is required which targets many specific points. The process is typically:
- Plan the project (Project initiation)
- Plan the contract, by designing a Request For Information (RFI) or Request for Proposal (RFP)
- Disseminate RFI/RFP
- Select the vendor you like the most (could be cheapest, most skilled, etc)
- Administer the contract
- Close the contract, once the work has been done
Why? Contracts are necessary to ensure that work is provided as agreed. The contract may specify the quality of the work that is to be provided.
Payment. The contract can be paid as either lump-sum at the end, or on a pro-rata labour basis. The three types of contract are:
- Fixed-price (lump)
- Cost-reimbursable (labour)
- Time and materials (long term)
Project closure actually refers to “solution implementation technique”.
Project implementation actually refers to the type of solution desired, e.g. custom, from-scratch, etc.
Parallel: The new solution is run in parallel with the existing system for a short time span, and then eventually the old system is switched off. This approach allows for stakeholders to familiarise, and is also to mitigate risk/provide contingency.
Phased: There are a number of dates/milestones at which components of the new solution will replace equivalent components of the old solution. This can also help mitigate the risk of the new, and it allows newer stuff to be delivered into production sooner rather than later.
Direct: The new solution replaces the old system entirely, at a single point in time. This is a cheap implementation method. However it is also risky, from an operational perspective – what if there is failure, what if people cannot understand.